The main epiphany for Raworth is the realization that the economy has both a biophysical ceiling and an ethico-social floor, and that the Keynesian-neoclassical growth synthesis tends to violate both of these limits.

For me and my fellow Whiteheadians, the need to keep this kind of thinking alive was intensified by the global environmental crisis. The victory of value-free research disciplines has rendered universities more part of the problem than part of the solution.

Nordhaus operates out of economic thinking that is strongly individualistic in its assumptions. He does not seem to understand the difference between taking the market as the instrument of solving our problems and putting forward different goals altogether.

Economic growth should stop when the marginal cost of economic growth begins to exceed its marginal benefit. Beyond that point, further growth brings about dis-economy, or growth-induced problems, which do more harm than good.